Guide What Are Vitamins: A Complete Professional Guide

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You must list the dietary ingredients that have Daily Values in the same order as for the labels of conventional foods, except that vitamins, minerals and electrolytes are grouped together. This results in the following order for vitamins and minerals: Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, biotin, pantothenic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, chloride, sodium, and potassium.

Vitamins - common misconceptions

You may use the following synonyms in parentheses after your dietary ingredients: Vitamin C ascorbic acid , thiamin vitamin B1 , riboflavin vitamin B2 , folate folacin or folic acid , and calories energy. Alternatively, you may list "folic acid" or "folacin" without parentheses in place of "folate. You must list the weight of calcium, rather than the weight of the calcium carbonate, the source ingredient, in the "Supplement Facts" panel.

You may place the amount of your dietary ingredient in a separate column or immediately following the name of your dietary ingredient.

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Language consistent with the declaration of the serving size, such as "Each Tablet Contains" or "Amount Per 2 Tablets" may be used in place of the heading "Amount Per Serving. You may declare information on a "per unit" basis in addition to the required "per serving" basis. You may use additional columns when you have a product with different servings, such as one tablet in the morning and two at night. You must label the columns appropriately, e.

FAQs for provisionally registered teachers

For example, the amount of fat would be listed in terms of grams in both the "Nutrition Facts" and "Supplement Facts" panels. You should use the units of measurement given in 21 CFR See Appendix B for the daily values to be used for adults and children 4 or more years of age and Appendix C for the daily values to be used for infants, children less than 4 years of age, or pregnant or lactating women.

In this calculation, you must use as the quantitative amount the unrounded amount, except that for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, total carbohydrate, and dietary fiber, you may use the quantitative amount by weight declared on the label i. Note: This does not pertain to dietary ingredients having RDIs because they may not be listed when present at less than 2 percent of the RDI.

You may show more than one column. FDA has established four sets of Daily Values for many nutrients. Appendix B shows the Daily Values to be used for adults and children 4 or more years of age and Appendix C has the Daily Values to be used for children under 4 years of age, for infants, and for pregnant and lactating women. When you show more than one column, you must clearly identify each column e.

You must list "other dietary ingredients" in the "Supplement Facts" panel following the listing of dietary ingredients having Daily Values. You must list "other dietary ingredients" by common or usual name in a column or linear display. FDA has not specified an order that you must follow. You must list the quantitative amount by weight per serving immediately following the name of the dietary ingredient or in a separate column. You must list liquid extracts using the volume or weight of the total extract and the condition of the starting material prior to extraction when it was fresh.


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You may include information on the concentration of the dietary ingredient and the solvent used, e. You must identify the solvent in either the nutrition label or ingredient list. For dietary ingredients that are extracts from which the solvent has been removed, you must list the weights of the dried extracts. You may list constituents of a dietary ingredient indented under the dietary ingredient and followed by their quantitative amounts by weight per serving.

You may declare the constituents in a column or in a linear display. You must identify proprietary blends by use of the term "Proprietary Blend" or an appropriately descriptive term or fanciful name. On the same line, you must list the total weight of all "other dietary ingredients" contained in the blend. Indented underneath the name of the blend, you must list the "other dietary ingredients" in the blend, either in a column or linear fashion, in descending order of predominance by weight. These ingredients should be followed by a symbol referring to the footnote "Daily Value Not Established.

The "Supplement Facts" nutrition information referred to as a panel must be enclosed in a box by using hairlines. The title, "Supplement Facts," must be larger than all other print in the panel and, unless impractical, must be set full width of the panel. The title and all headings must be bolded to distinguish them from other information. Except as provided for small and intermediate-sized packages, you must set information other than the title, headings, and footnotes in uniform type size no smaller than 8 point.

You also must use a type size larger than all other print size in the nutrition label for the title "Supplement Facts. See the section on "Special Labeling Provisions" for the exceptions for small and intermediate-sized packages. Except for small and intermediate-sized packages, you must use a hairline rule that is centered between the lines of text to separate each dietary ingredient from the dietary ingredient above and beneath it. FDA has provided an exception for certain packages with space constraints. You are not required to follow Appendix B to Part Appendix B and its specifications are a model, which FDA has suggested in the interest of uniformity of presentation.

For example, 21 CFR You may present the information for each packet e.

Vitamin and mineral supplements

For two packets, this would consist of five columns. List all of the dietary ingredients in the first column. List the amounts and percents of the morning packet in the second and third columns and similar information for the evening packet in the fourth and fifth columns see the illustration of aggregate nutrition labeling in 21 CFR FDA will collect a composite of 12 subsamples consumer packages or 10 percent of the number of packages in the same inspection lot, whichever is smaller. FDA will randomly select these packages.

FDA may permit you to use an alternative means of compliance or additional exemptions in accordance with 21 CFR Products that contain less than this amount of such a dietary ingredient would be misbranded and in violation of the law. The two exemptions for small businesses and low-volume products a. Small packages are those packages having less than 12 square inches of total surface area available to bear labeling. In lieu of a "Supplement Facts" panel, you may print labels for small packages with a telephone number or address that consumers can use to obtain nutrition information.

You may use a telephone number or an address in place of the "Supplement Facts" panel only if you place no claims or other nutrition information on the product label. You may use a type size no smaller than 4. You may use a tabular format on small packages. You also may present "Supplement Facts" information in a linear i. See 21 CFR Intermediate-sized packages are those packages having from 12 to 40 square inches of total surface area available to bear labeling. The "Supplement Facts" panel on the labels of intermediate-sized packages must use type size no smaller than 6 point, except that type no smaller than 4.

Also, 4. Furthermore, the type size used in the "Supplement Facts" panel on an inner container may be as small as needed to accommodate all required information if the "Supplement Facts" on the outer container meets these type size requirements.


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You may use a tabular format on an intermediate-sized package if the package shape or size cannot accommodate vertical columns. You may use a linear format if the label will not accommodate a tabular format. You may use the abbreviations in 21 CFR You may use a row of dots connecting the columns containing the name of each dietary ingredient and the quantitative amount by weight and as a percent of Daily Value in the "Supplement Facts" panel on a small or an intermediate-sized package if you use the minimum type size and there is not sufficient space for you to use hairlines.

On products for children less than 2 years of age, other than infant formula, you must not declare calories from fat, calories from saturated fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and cholesterol.

You are not required to place the footnote on dietary supplements that is required by 21 CFR However, you are required to include the footnote "Percent Daily Values are based on a 2, calorie diet" when you declare total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, or protein. If there is insufficient space for the "Supplement Facts" panel on the information panel or the principal display panel, you may locate it on other panels that can readily be seen by consumers in accordance with 21 CFR You may omit the "Supplement Facts" panel on individual units if nutrition information is fully provided on the outer package of the multi-unit pack and the unit containers are securely enclosed and are not intended to be separated for retail sale.

The retailer must display a "Supplement Facts" panel clearly at the point of purchase e. Alternatively, the required information may be placed in a booklet, looseleaf binder, or some other appropriate format that is available at the point of purchase. A Dietary supplement containing multiple vitamins see 21 CFR B Dietary supplement containing multiple vitamins for children and adults see 21 CFR Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device not a kitchen spoon. Store multivitamins in their original container.

Storing multivitamins in a glass container can ruin the medication. Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time. Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at Certain minerals may also cause serious overdose symptoms if you take too much. Overdose symptoms may include stomach pain, vomiting , diarrhea , constipation , loss of appetite, hair loss , peeling skin , tingly feeling in or around your mouth, changes in menstrual periods, weight loss , severe headache , muscle or joint pain, severe back pain , blood in your urine, pale skin, and easy bruising or bleeding.

Avoid the regular use of salt substitutes in your diet if your multivitamin contains potassium.


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If you are on a low-salt diet, ask your doctor before taking a vitamin or mineral supplement. Do not take multivitamins with milk, other dairy products, calcium supplements, or antacids that contain calcium. Calcium may make it harder for your body to absorb certain ingredients of the multivitamin. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives ; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

What are vitamins and supplements?

When taken as directed, multivitamins are not expected to cause serious side effects. Common side effects may include:. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

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Multivitamin side effects in more detail. Multivitamins can interact with certain medications, or affect how medications work in your body. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use multivitamins if you are also using:. NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -- ibuprofen Advil , Motrin , naproxen Aleve , celecoxib , diclofenac , indomethacin , meloxicam , and others. This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect multivitamins, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products.

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